Skip to content

Intersections and Non-Intersections: A Protocol for Identifying Pedestrian Crash Risk Locations in GIS

Download PDF  (1.35 MB)
Publication: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 16 (19)
Pages: 3565
Publication Date: 2019

Intersection and non-intersection locations are commonly used as spatial units of analysis for modeling pedestrian crashes. While both location types have been previously studied, comparing results is difficult given the different data and methods used to identify crash-risk locations. In this study, a systematic and replicable protocol was developed in GIS (Geographic Information System) to create a consistent spatial unit of analysis for use in pedestrian crash modeling. Four publicly accessible datasets were used to identify unique intersection and non-intersection locations: Roadway intersection points, roadway lanes, legal speed limits, and pedestrian crash records. Two algorithms were developed and tested using five search radii (ranging from 20 to 100 m) to assess the protocol reliability. The algorithms, which were designed to identify crash-risk locations at intersection and non-intersection areas detected 87.2% of the pedestrian crash locations (r: 20 m). Agreement rates between algorithm results and the crash data were 94.1% for intersection and 98.0% for non-intersection locations, respectively. The buffer size of 20 m generally showed the highest performance in the analyses. The present protocol offered an efficient and reliable method to create spatial analysis units for pedestrian crash modeling. It provided researchers a cost-effective method to identify unique intersection and non-intersection locations. Additional search radii should be tested in future studies to refine the capture of crash-risk locations.

Authors: Haena Kim, Mingyu Kang, Anne Moudon, Linda Ng Boyle,
Recommended Citation:
Kang, Mingyu, Anne Vernez Moudon, Haena Kim, and Linda Ng Boyle. 2019. Intersections and Non-Intersections: A Protocol for Identifying Pedestrian Crash Risk Locations in GIS. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 19: 3565.

A Framework to Assess Pedestrian Exposure Using Personal Device Data

Download PDF  (1.72 MB)
Publication: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Volume: 66 (1)
Pages: 320 - 324
Publication Date: 2022

Capturing pedestrian exposure is important to assess the likelihood of a pedestrian-vehicle crash. In this study, we show how data collected on pedestrians using personal electronic devices can provide insights on exposure. This paper presents a framework for capturing exposure using spatial pedestrian movements based on GPS coordinates collected from accelerometers, defined as walking bouts. The process includes extracting and cleaning the walking bouts and then merging other environmental factors. A zero-inflated negative binomial model is used to show how the data can be used to predict the likelihood of walking bouts at the intersection level. This information can be used by engineers, designers, and planners in roadway designs to enhance pedestrian safety.

Authors: Haena Kim, Grace Douglas, Linda Ng Boyle, Anne Moudon, Steve Mooney, Brian Saelens, Beth Ebel
Recommended Citation:
Douglas, G., Boyle, L. N., Kim, H., Moudon, A., Mooney, S., Saelens, B., & Ebel, B. (2022). A Framework to Assess Pedestrian Exposure Using Personal Device Data. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.
Student Thesis and Dissertations

An Evaluation of Engineering Treatments and Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior on Major Arterials in Washington State

Publication: Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC)
Publication Date: 2008

This report examines pedestrian and motorist behavior on arterials in Washington State and determines how, if at all, these behaviors change when various engineering treatments are applied. The treatments that were examined included crosswalk markings, raised medians, in-pavement flashers, signage, stop bars, overhead lighting, and sidewalks. The relationships between pedestrian travel and transit use, origin-destination patterns, traffic signals, and schools were also explored.

The study examined seven locations in the state of Washington. These were State Route (SR) 7 at South 180th Street in Spanaway, SR 99 at South 152nd Street in Shoreline, SR 99 at South 240th Street in Kent, SR 2 between South Lundstrom and King Streets in Airway Heights, SR 2 at Lacrosse Street in Spokane, SR 2 at Rowan Avenue in Spokane, and SR 2 at Wellesley Avenue in Spokane.

Because pedestrian-vehicle collisions are rare when specific locations are studied, other criteria were used to evaluate the conditions and behaviors that were present. These included “conflicts” such as running behavior, motorists having to brake unexpectedly to avoid a pedestrian, pedestrians waiting in the center lane to cross, and more. These unreported, but very common, occurrences enabled the researchers to gain a better understanding of both pedestrian and motorist concerns and behaviors and the effects that improvements might have.

The study concludes that the causes of conflicts are highly varied: ignorance of or noncompliance with the law (by the motorist or the pedestrian), inattention, vehicles following too closely, impatience, anxiety in attempting to catch a bus, use or non-use of pedestrian facilities, placement of features in the built environment, and more. While pedestrian/motorist interaction improves with improved visibility (something which can be obtained through better engineering design and the removal of visual clutter) better education and/or enforcement will also be needed to achieve significant safety benefits.

Authors: Katherine D. Davis, Mark E. Hallenbeck
Recommended Citation:
Katherine D. Davis, Mark E. Hallenbeck. An Evaluation of Engineering Treatments and Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior on Major Arterials in Washington State. Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), 2008.
Thesis: Array