Electronic door seals (E-seals) were tested on shipping containers that traveled through ports, over borders, and on roadways. The findings showed that using these RFID devices could increase supply chain efficiency and improve the security of containerized cargo movements, particularly when E-seals replace common mechanical seals. Before the benefits of E-seals can be realized, several barriers must be addressed. A major problem has been a lack of frequency standards for E-seals, hindering their acceptability for global trade. Routine use of E-seals would also require new processes that might slow their acceptance by the shipping industry. Disposable E-seals, which decrease industry concerns about costs and enforcement agency concerns about security by eliminating the need to recycle E-seals, are not common because they need to be manufactured in large quantities to be cost effective. Compatibility with existing highway systems could also promote E-seal acceptance, as containers could be tracked on roadways.
McCormack, E., Jensen, M., & Hovde, A. (2010). Evaluating the Use of Electronic Door Seals (E-Seals) on Shipping Containers. International Journal of Applied Logistics (IJAL), 1(4), 13-29.