Common-carrier parcel lockers have emerged as a secure, automated, self-service means of delivery consolidation in congested urban areas, which are believed to mitigate last-mile delivery challenges by reducing out-of-vehicle delivery times and consequently vehicle dwell times at the curb. However, little research exists to empirically demonstrate the environmental and efficiency gains from this technology.
In this study, we designed a nonequivalent group pretest/post-test experiment to estimate the causal effects of a common-carrier locker in a residential building in downtown Seattle, WA. The causal effects are measured in terms of vehicle dwell time and the time delivery drivers spend inside the building, through the difference-in-difference method and using a similar residential building as a control.
The results showed a statistically significant decrease in time spent inside the building and a small yet insignificant reduction in vehicle dwell times.
Andisheh Ranjbari, Caleb Diehl, Giacomo Dalla Chiara, and Anne Goodchild (2022). Improving Delivery Efficiency and Understanding User Behavior through Common Carrier Parcel Lockers. 9th International Urban Freight Conference (INUF), Long Beach, CA May 2022.