This paper compares the CO2 emissions from the use of personal vehicles to shared-use vehicles for grocery shopping in Seattle, Washington. The research builds on existing literature by considering the importance of modeling the logistical details of routing and scheduling, and by comparing the results of an American case study to existing European case studies. We find the US and European case studies to provide consistent results, that low customer density provides greater opportunities for emissions reductions, and that logistical efficiencies can account for approximately 50% of CO2 reductions.
Wygonik, Erica, and Anne Goodchild. "Evaluating the efficacy of shared-use vehicles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: a US case study of grocery delivery." In Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, vol. 51, no. 2. 2012.